OUGD401 Module Evaluation

What skills have you developed through this module and how effectively do you think you have applied them?
I feel this module has been extremely beneficial to my learning as a Graphic Designer, the theory delivered though both the lectures and the seminars have provided me with a wealth of knowledge. One of the main skills I have developed further is my essay writing skills, although coming from a background of A Level English Literature I still feel my skills with formal writing have both developed and improved. Primarily I have never used the harvard referencing system before within my essay writing, yet I feel I have adapted well to the use of this system and my skills with referencing source and research material have also improved as as this isn’t always a focus at A Level however at degree level referencing your sources is key part of the essay. I will be able to take the use of this system into my second and third years on the course as I continue to work through the contextual modules within those years.

The research process itself self has also been a learning curve for me and I have to learn new skills to be able to fulfill the requirements of the essay. I felt the seminar takes eased me into these new process I have not previously been open to. Gathering and collecting a body of research on a specific subject to inform my essay writing is something I haven’t done before however using the online library as a tool as well as online resources I was able to gather an appropriate body of research material. The information and knowledge I have learnt within the lectures relating to my essay allowed me to work through my source material a select relevant quotes and references to inform my essay response. Additionally a skill I also feel I have developed is the ability to rework, refocus and reevaluate my essay in a view of improving it. In the past this has always been something I have shied away from, however knowing there was elements that could be improved within my essay and working again with my source material I was able to adjust, add and amend areas of the essay in a hope of improving it’s overall quality - it is something I felt I achieved after finishing the modification to the essay I felt having taken a break from the essay and then revisiting it allowed me to take a new approach to the essay and areas for improved now clearly stood out, more than before.

The use of quotes and references within an essay is another skill I have improved, as in my previous education I have used to using only integrated quotations, however will support in tutorials I learn’t how extended quotes can be beneficial to both the structure and the content of the essay and improves the overall communication of points I am making within my essay.

What approaches to design production have you developed and how have they informed your design development process?
Using my own content in the form of a written essay is something new to my design practice, as I had created the content I knew the content exactly and knew what it was trying to say and do and because of this, this allowed me to design more effectively and appropriately to help communicate this information to the audience. Furthermore I have developed my use of the grid as a format and way of working within text within a document, it is something I have only briefly used in the past. However using the theory I understood from my essay I felt I was confident in both using and exploiting the grid to aid the design and aesthetic of my publication.

What strengths can you identify in your work and how/will you capitalize on these?
One main strength I can see in my work is my ability to take the ideologies, theories of a contextual era, in my own case, modernism and transfer these principles into my own work, with knowledge of these principles and ways of working I can then translate them to influence my own design practice - a process and skill I believe the theory into practice belief aims to achieve. However being aware of these principles and knowing how they the designers of this era worked did influence heavily on my own, so I believe it will be essential in the future that I define a clear line between how I am influenced by these principle and not to just replicate what has come before me, this in it’s self is not a modernist actions, within crits it was suggested that I was not as innovative and experimental as I could have been therefore I need to allow my own personality to show in my work as a posed to just using existing ways of working. 

A strength I also feel I have is my ability to interrupt essay question and formulate an formal, articulated well written response to answer the initial posed question, a skill that I feel has come from my previous study before degree level. Furthermore I feel I can structure an essay well and formulate a well rounded response that argues a key set of points that are backed up with a range of contextual references.

What weaknesses can you identify in your work and how will you address them in the future?
One weakness I can identify within my work after taking part within the final crit for this module is to never assume what the target audience will understand or know about your work. I found from looking at the work of other and my own work that the intention or subject of the work is never initially clear however I think this could easily be addressed within the way the content is structured or will an introductory paragraph so where within the publication that puts the publication into context. 

Additionally another weakness I have is using the computer as a digital tool for design but not testing my creations by creating mock ups or test prints before printing the final version, the key problem I have found is I use fonts that are too small or hard to read which is not ideal when presenting an essay. Therefore by printing test pieces I could test the size of the text and then select an appropriate alternative if the text is not legible or readable. 

Getting more involved within crits and studio workshops is also area that could stand to be improved, although I contribute to the group I could still be making more of an effort to say more valuable comments which can benefit both myself and the group.

Identify 5 things you will do differently next time and what you expect to gain from these?
  1. Next time within the context of practice module and within essay writing I would want to explore a wider range of sources for research to expand my knowledge before beginning to write the essay. Within this module I tended to only use a select few sources of research which could limit the quality of my response. Therefore if I were to use a wider range of contextual sources and reference my essay would be more informed as I would have a greater knowledge of the subject I am writing about. 
  2. I will allow myself a lot more time for paper based design experimentation and development as I did not allot myself a lot of time to explore the visual aesthetic of the publication on paper and went into designing on the computer after considering the design only a surface level. However if I were to explore layout and visual more before I begin designing on the computer more interesting and innovative results could be produced. 
  3. Adding images and research of my own to my lecture notes will make them even more of a valuable resource to both my design context and design practice studies. Currently the process of writing up my lecture notes is extremely beneficial to fully understanding the subjects however by adding images and my research I could gain and greater, fuller understanding of the lecture topics. 
  4. Consider as many offline resources as possible and to refrain from using the internet all of the time as a place to get both research and visual inspiration, there is a lot of inspiration in the world that comes from other sources and formats, seeking out these other formats could open my creative practice up to new opportunities. 
  5. Additionally I would like to explore a greater range of visual variations both settling or deciding on a final design. Often I find myself creating something that I like, looks aesthetically pleasing and communicates to the audience well however by exploring visual variation within a design could lead more experimental aesthetics that still communication the message to the auidence effectively. 

Attendance: 5
Punctuality: 5
Motivation: 5
Commitment: 5
Quantity of work: 3
Quality of work: 5
Contribution to the group: 3

Theory into Practice: Final Publication

Theory into Practice: Final Crit

Theory into Practice: Digital Development

Theory into Practice: Developing the Publication Layout & Design

Essay page design ideas

Principles layout design ideas

Timeline layout design ideas

Front cover design ideas

Theory into Practice: Prototype Publication

Theory into Practice: Progress Crit

Theory Into Practice: Planning the Publication Content

Theory into Practice: Typeface Research

Akzindenz Grotesk
Akzidenz-Grotesk is a grotesque (early sans-serif) typeface originally released by the Berthold Type Foundry in 1896 under the name Accidenz-Grotesk. It was the first sans serif typeface to be widely used and influenced many later neo-grotesque typefaces after 1950.

The design of Akzidenz-Grotesk was theorized to be derived from Walbaum or Didot, as demonstrated by the similar font metrics when the serifs are removed. However, the font family also included fonts made by other foundries, such as the c. 1880 typeface Royal Grotesk Light from the Berlin foundry Ferdinand Theinhardt Schriftgiesserei, designed by Ferdinand Theinhardt for the scientific publications of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. FTS also supplied the regular, medium and bold weights of the typeface. While Hermann Berthold took over Theinhardt's Berlin foundry in 1908, it wasn't until the fall of the Prussian monarchy in 1918 that Royal Grotesk was published as part of the Akzidenz-Grotesk font family and renamed Akzidenz-Grotesk Condensed.

Contemporary versions of Akzidenz-Grotesk descend from a late-1950s project, directed by Günter Gerhard Lange at Berthold, to enlarge the typeface family, adding a larger character set, but retaining all of the idiosyncrasies of the 1898 face. Under the direction of Günter Gerhard Lange, he had designed 33 font styles to the Akzidenz-Grotesk family, including AG Extra (1958), AG Extra Bold (1966) and AG Super (1968), AG Super Italic (2001) and Extra Bold italic (2001).

In May 2006, Berthold announced the release of Akzidenz-Grotesk in OpenType format, under the name Akzidenz-Grotesk Pro. The Pro family offers extended language support for Central European, Baltic and Turkish as well as Welsh, archaic Danish and Esperanto and is available in CFF PostScript OpenType. Berthold also released Akzidenz-Grotesk Standard, which includes glyphs of Western European character set, in both PostScript and TrueType flavored OpenType.

In May 2007 Berthold announced the release of Akzidenz-Grotesk Pro+, which includes Cyrillic and Greek characters.

Akzidenz-Grotesk and Georgia are the official fonts of the American Red Cross. Akzidenz-Grotesk is used on the national logo and national guidelines require the font to be used on all chapter logos. All American Red Cross publications must be printed in Akzidenz-Grotesk or Georgia fonts.

In typography, Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed in 1927 by Paul Renner. It is based on geometric shapes that became representative of visual elements of the Bauhaus design style of 1919–1933. Commissioned by the Bauer Type Foundry, in reaction to Ludwig & Mayer's seminal Erbar of 1922, Futura was commercially released in 1927.

The family was originally cast in Light, Medium, Bold, and Bold Oblique fonts in 1928. Light Oblique, Medium Oblique, Demibold, and Demibold Oblique fonts were later released in 1930. Book font was released in 1932. Book Oblique font was released in 1939. Extra Bold font was designed by Edwin W. Shaar in 1952. Extra Bold Italic font was designed in 1955 by Edwin W. Shaar and Tommy Thompson. Matrices for machine composition were made by Intertype.

Although Renner was not associated with the Bauhaus, he shared many of its idioms and believed that a modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design. Renner's initial design included several geometrically constructed alternative characters and ranging (old-style) figures, which can be found in the typeface Architype Renner.

Futura has an appearance of efficiency and forwardness. The typeface is derived from simple geometric forms (near-perfect circles, triangles and squares) and is based on strokes of near-even weight, which are low in contrast. This is most visible in the almost perfectly round stroke of the o, which is nonetheless slightly ovoid. In designing Futura, Renner avoided the decorative, eliminating non-essential elements. The lowercase has tall ascenders, which rise above the cap line. The uppercase characters present proportions similar to those of classical Roman capitals.

Original Futura design also included small capitals and the old-style figures, which were dropped from the original metal issue of the type. The digital versions of these glyphs were first produced by Neufville Digital under the Futura ND family.

Heue Haas Grotesk (Helvetica)
Helvetica is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann.

Helvetica was developed in 1957 by Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann at the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei (Haas type foundry) of Münchenstein, Switzerland. Haas set out to design a new sans-serif typeface that could compete with the successful Akzidenz-Grotesk in the Swiss market. Originally called Neue Haas Grotesk, its design was based on Schelter-Grotesk and Haas’Normal Grotesk. The aim of the new design was to create a neutral typeface that had great clarity, no intrinsic meaning in its form, and could be used on a wide variety of signage.

When Linotype adopted Neue Haas Grotesk (which was never planned to be a full range of mechanical and hot-metal typefaces) its design was reworked. After the success of Univers, Arthur Ritzel of Stempel redesigned Neue Haas Grotesk into a larger family.

In 1960, the typeface's name was changed by Haas' German parent company Stempel to Helvetica in order to make it more marketable internationally. It was initially suggested that the type be called 'Helvetia' which is the original Latin name for Switzerland. This was ignored by Eduard Hoffmann as he decided it wouldn't be appropriate to name a type after a country. He then decided on 'Helvetica' as this meant 'Swiss' as opposed to 'Switzerland'.

Univers (French pronunciation: [ynivɛʁ], "ünivair") is the name of a realist sans-serif typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1954.

Originally conceived and released by Deberny & Peignot in 1957, the type library was acquired in 1972 by Haas. Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei (Haas Type Foundry) was later folded into the D. Stempel AG and Linotype collection in 1985 and 1989 respectively.

Arial, sometimes marketed or displayed in software as Arial MT, is a sans-serif typeface and set of computer fonts. Fonts from the Arial family are packaged with all versions of Microsoft Windows, some other Microsoft software applications, Apple Mac OS X and many PostScript computer printers. The typeface was designed in 1982 by a 10-person team, led by Robin Nicholas and Patricia Saunders, for Monotype Typography.

The Arial typeface comprises many styles: Regular, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Black, Black Italic, Extra Bold, Extra Bold Italic, Light, Light Italic, Narrow, Narrow Italic, Narrow Bold, Narrow Bold Italic, Condensed, Light Condensed, Bold Condensed, and Extra Bold Condensed. The extended Arial type family includes even more styles: Rounded (Light, Regular, Bold, Extra Bold); Monospaced (Regular, Oblique, Bold, Bold Oblique). Many of these have been issued in multiple font configurations with different degrees of language support. The most widely used and bundled Arial fonts are Arial Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, along with the same styles of Arial Narrow, plus Arial Black and Black Italic. More recently Arial Rounded has also been widely bundled.

Theory into Practice: Quotes from Swiss Modernists

Josef Müller-Brockmann

The grid system is an aid, not a guarantee. It permits a number of possible uses and each designer can look for a solution appropriate to his personal style. But one must learn how to use the grid; it is an art that requires practice.

The grid system is an aid, not a guarantee. It permits a number of possible uses and each designer can look for a solution appropiate to his personal style. But one must learn how to use the grid; it is an
art that requires practice.

I still reserve the right, at any time, to doubt the solutions
furnished by the Modular, keeping intact my freedom, which must
depend on my feelings rather than my reason.

The use of the grid implies
the will to systematize, to clarify
the will to penetrate to the essentials, to concentrate
the will to cultivate objectivity instead of subjectivity
the will to rationalize the creative and technical production processes
the will to integrate elements of colour, form and material
the will to achieve architectural dominion over surface and space
the will to adopt a positive, forward-thinking attitude
the recognition of the importance of education and the effect of work devised in a constructive and creative spirit.

There are various reasons for using the grid as an aid in the organization of text and illustration. Economic reasons: a problem can be solved in less time and at lower cost. Rational reasons: both simple and complex problems can be solved in a uniform and characteristic style. Mental attitude: the systematic presentation of facts, of sequences of events, and of solutions to problems should, for social and educational reasons, be a constructive contribution to the cultural state of society and an expression of our sense of responsibility.

Max Bill

Even in modern art, artists have used methods based on calculation, inasmuch as these elements, alongside those of a more personal and emotional nature, give balance and harmony to any work of art.

Far from creating a new formalism, what these can yield is something far transcending surface values since they not only embody form as beauty, but also form in which intuitions or ideas or conjectures have taken visible substance.

I made the first Moebius strip without knowing what it was.

The orbit of human vision has widened and art has annexed fresh territories that were formerly denied to it.

Thus, the more succinctly a train of thought was expounded, and the more comprehensive the unity of its basic idea, the closer it would approximate to the prerequisites of the mathematical way of thinking.

We call those works of art concrete that came into being on the basis of their inherent resources and rules - without external borrowing from natural phenomena, without transforming those phenomena, in other words: not by abstraction.

The requirements of language and legibility must be fulfilled before purely aesthetic considerations can be introduced. A text-image will always be most perfect when it combines a logical path for the eye to follow and balances typographical and aesthetics demands.

Emil Ruder

Typography has one plain duty before it and that is to convey information in writing. No argument or consideration can absolve typography from this duty. A printed work which cannot be read becomes a product without purpose.

They should make new ways to better design buildings and books. The computer was the end of Swiss typography!

Theory into Practice: Pioneers Research

Josef Müller-Brockmann
Josef Müller-Brockmann, (May 9, 1914, in Rapperswil – August 30, 1996), was a Swiss graphic designer and teacher. He studied architecture,design and history of art at both the University and Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich. In 1936 he opened his Zurich studio specialising in graphic design, exhibition design and photography. From 1951 he produced concert posters for the Tonhalle in Zurich. In 1958 he became a founding editor of New Graphic Design along with R.P. Lohse, C. Vivarelli, and H. Neuburg. In 1966 he was appointed European design consultant to IBM. Müller-Brockman was author of the 1961 publications The Graphic Artist and his Design Problems, Grid Systems in Graphic Design where he advocates use of the grid for page structure, and the 1971 publications History of the Poster and A History of Visual Communication.

Max Bill
Max Bill (22 December 1908 – 9 December 1994) was a Swiss architect, artist, painter, typeface designer, industrial designer and graphic designer.

Bill was born in Winterthur. After an apprenticeship as a silversmith during 1924-1927, Bill took up studies at the Bauhaus in Dessau under many teachers including Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and Oskar Schlemmer from 1927 to 1929, after which he moved to Zurich.

From 1937 onwards he was a prime mover behind the Allianz group of Swiss artists and in 1944, he became a professor at the school of arts in Zurich.

In 1953, Max Bill, Inge Aicher-Scholl and Otl Aicher founded the Ulm School of Design (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung - HfG Ulm) in Ulm, Germany, a design school initially created in the tradition of the Bauhaus and which later developed a new design education approach integrating art and science. The school is notable for its inclusion of semiotics as a field of study. The school closed in 1968. Faculty and students included: Tomás Maldonado, Otl Aicher, Joseph Albers, Johannes Itten, John Lottes, Walter Zeischegg, and Peter Seitz.Bill was the single most decisive influence on Swiss graphic design beginning in the 1950s with his theoretical writing and progressive work. His connection to the days of the Modern Movement gave him special authority. As an industrial designer, his work is characterized by a clarity of design and precise proportions. Examples are the elegant clocks and watches designed for Junghans, a long-term client. Among Bill's most notable product designs is the "Ulmer Hocker" of 1954, a stool that can also be used as a shelf element or a side table. Although the stool was a creation of Bill and Ulm school designer Hans Gugelot, it is often called "Bill Hocker" because the first sketch on a cocktail napkin was Bill's work.

As a designer and artist, Bill sought to create forms which visually represent the New Physics of the early 20th century. He sought to create objects so that the new science of form could be understood by the senses: that is as a concrete art. Thus Bill is not a rationalist -as is typically thought- but rather a phenomenologist. One who understands embodiment as the ultimate expression of a concrete art. In this way he is not some much extending as re-interpreting Bauhaus theory. Yet curiously Bill's critical interpreters have not really grasped this fundamental issue. A prime example is his sculptural work using the Möbius strip form.

Emil Ruder
Emil Ruder (1914–1970) was a Swiss typographer and graphic designer, who with Armin Hofmann helped to found the Schule für Gestaltung Basel (Basel School of Design) and a graphic style known as the Swiss Style.

Ruder was a contributing writer and editor for Typografische Monatsblätter. Ruder published a basic grammar of typography titled Emil Ruder: Typopgraphy. The text was published in German, English and French, by Swiss publisher Arthur Niggli in 1967. The book helped spread and propagate the Swiss Style, and became a basic text for graphic design and typography programs in Europe and North America. In 1962 he helped to found the International Center for the Typographic Arts (ICTA) in New York.

It's Your Choice: Packaging?


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