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Lecture 7: High Vs. Low Culture

Questions of taste within society, the fine arts are seen as high culture where as the rest of the arts such as graphic design are seen as low culture, culture for the masses whereas high culture is for the elitist

‘Avant-garde’ is a term that is applied to art and culture with the apposing term being ‘Kitsch’

Dictionary defines Avant-garde as work that is progressive and innovative, society can also be deemed avant-garde, a person can also be avant-garde in their actions by being radical, experimental and challenging, one can also be part of the avant-garde

The term is modernist term that can also be used to describe a group of people that are progressive, the term however has become very over used and used everywhere within society and has lost some if not all of it’s original integrity

The term is often used in a simplistic manner within fashion to describe the style and work of some designers

The term is used everywhere outside of the realms of fine art where it originated, it is also no longer just a term for art and design, it’s meaning has become broadened and perhaps misconstrued

Marcel Duchamp - a typical avant-garde artist, he aims to be shocking and sensational within his work and upset the established order of society

Avant-garde in art means trying to do something different and not just to be stylistic or on an aesthetic level and also to upset the establishment of the everyday man

‘Fauves’ the work of self taught painters, where creating art very different to other art being created at the time, it was very experimental and represented an attack of the established art world

Aggressiveness formed an element of this work in that the art was breaking the existing rule book

Politics was also part of the art being created, not just being experimental, politics influenced the work being created

As avant-gardism grows, being radical and shocking become the qualities by which good art is judged and defined against, this becomes a fetish for artists

However this quality leads to ‘experiment for experiments sake’ and content takes president over style - meaning of the work has a greater priority

These qualities also become prioritized within the work of artists, innovation - new, experimentation - process, originality - to copy others is bad, creative genius - hidden.

Artist begin to speak about how creative inspiration comes from within them and this creativity must be let out

Post-modernist theory questions is anything new? Everything is always as a result of what has come before it

Challenging convention becomes a house style for artists, therefore challenging convention become convention

Within design education, educators can not teach students to be radical as they are taught to a curriculum

Throughout history has never been about being creative, this has come from art and design education, in the 16, 17 and 18th century only higher class people would go to art school, where they were taught to duplicate to work of great artists and it was not until they replicate that work perfectly were they allowed to create work of their own, however the art that artists made wasn’t the art they wanted to create

Only the church and members of the aristocracy where the people who brought art, therefore there was a very limited market for art, art was never about being creative it was about copying the work of a ‘master’, it was never about freedom

As society modernizes, the market for art develop, this is the time when artists become free and they are free to make the art they want to make

Although new styles of art begin to develop the work ultimately still needs to be sold , artists still needed to produce work that could be sold

Many artists believe they are above and beyond there work and therefore it is the fault of the people if they do not understand the work, the public are viewed as ‘stupid’ for not understanding the work

Within 20th century art, artists are viewed as above and higher than the average public and the world is not ready for the work they are producing and will in future make more sense and have greater meaning and understanding to the public

Van-guard a term coined by the french was used to describe the elite and the people that pave the way of the future, much alike the van guard of the army who go in fighting first before the rest of the army follow

Avant-garde artists are paving the way for the future as avant-gardism wanted and believed it could change the world and the politics in it, it developed repeatedly throughout the 20th century

Two attitudes towards art became apparent art that should change and better the world and there is art that is concerned with being experimental and has no engagement with the world this is referred to as ‘art for art’s sake’

Art for art’s sake dominated much of 21th century art thinking and practice

Clive Bell - discussed the relationship and combination of lines and colour which has the power to move somebody emotionally this is known as significant form

‘Rise of the critics’ Critics would write about why certain art was good, these people developed careers in explaining art that was hard to understand, these critics created theories about the work which artists then played to these theories and then other artists then followed

It is said that great intelligence is needed to understand significant form and if you do not understand significant form then you are stupid

Art for Art’s sake dominated the 20th century, avant-garde and kitsch represented the divide between art of importance and everything else

Haywain original painting is not kitsch whereas framed prints and plates of the same painting are deemed kitsch, recontextualizing art is seen as making the art kitsch, Kitsch is essentially everything that is not avant-garde 


Lecture 6: Film Theory 3 - Italian Film

Fellini an italian film director and screen writer is taken seriously as an auteur and became one of the most influential film makers of the 20th century, throughout his career which span 40 years, he won five academy awards, he was famous for his style which blended Barque with fantasy. Fellini famously comments on the superficiality of the middle class existence. He become critically acclaimed as his films were associated with with a distinctive style and sophistication.

La Dolce Vita, Fellini’s master piece released in 1960, another film by Fellini 8 1/2 released three years later in 1963 also received critical acclaim

La Dolce Vita also spurred the fashion trend for the sunglasses featured within the film

The staples to good Italian cinema is the audiences, the historical and social contexts and economics.

Within italy there are two types of cinema, Prima and Seconda visione, these are cinema which attract a middle to higher class audiences and are usually found within heavily populated cities and then terza visione cinemas which are found in less populated and poorer areas of italy and attract a lower class auidence, as tickets were cheaper and people went to cinema for habit rather than the selection of film. The films featured in these cinema were for formulaic and popular films than innovative, works of critical acclaim seen within prima visione and seconda visione cinemas.

Within 1970’s italy the cinema for the working classes was a very different experience, many would go to the cinema every night and the conventions of cinema are different in that it was common that people would talk, drink and eat during the film and people can enter to watch the film at any point start, middle or near the end, the cinema was a social experience rather than a experience in which you view a piece of cinematic genius. These conventions meant that the italian film industry required and needed many mediocre films to be produced

Wagstaff said that audiences at terza visione are more like televisions auidences in that experience in more casual, they don’t attend the cinema to see a specific film, they arrive irrespective of the film start time, and the experience is used as a social event to meet people

Filone is an italian word which has a similar meaning to genre, the term is based on the ideology of geology in which layer of veins create and exist within a large layer, types of filone include Giallo a type of film similar to detective films and is based on detective novels, Mondo/Cannibal films similar to horror films and Poliziottesco which are films based in the police

The Good, the bad and the ugly, 1966, directed by Sergio Leone - A now classic, acclaimed for its use of sound, music, lack of dialogue, use of eye line and cutting, difference in scale, use of camera to tell the story, fragmentation of the body and its catholic references.

Giallo and type of Filone is italian for yellow, it stems from a set of cheap paperback crime and mystery novels which all had a trademark yellow cover

Giallo directors - Mario Bava, Dario Argento and Lucio Fulci created films that were stylistic and expressionistic, which challenged our senses and standards of good taste, they were similar to grindhouse/drive in movies of america, they used wonderful titles to sell the concept of the movie to the public

Themes common ins Giallo films - the city of Rome and Milan, the amateur detective as a tourist - the protagonist of the film is usual an american or british tourist visiting Italy, they usually work within the creative industries, they also evoke a cosmopolitan life style. Giallo Killers commonly wear black gloves, black hat, over coat and have a disguised gender.

Dario Argento - Often referred to as the italian Hitchcock, places himself within the film alike hitchcock, his films feature visually stunning set pieces, shot without sound so films could be dubbed, He was also a son and brother of other famous film directors and producers.

Giallo films also feature a subjective point of view, Killer cam, eye line shot, set pieces, art and cultural references, semiotics, the fall, ambivalence towards modernity, religion and superstition

These films also feature dubbing and heightened sound they are shot without sound, then dialogue and sound effects are added later, this allows the film to be used in many languages, these types of films were often sold to America and Britain as B Movies - drive in movies

Many Giallo films also feature Freudian Psychology, most Giallo films require the film to be read from a psychoanalytical point of view

The films feature childhood trauma, often based of false memory, fetishes and the solution of mystery lining within art, the works of art that feature within these films are often subverted with madness of psychopath antagonist of the film and also provide a glimpse into the past and into the mind of the killer.

Lecture 5: Film Theory 2 - French New Wave 1950’s & 1960’s Cinema

When talking about french new wave cinema, this describe a period of many ‘new waves’ within both Britain and france, however the french movement became much more influential, with an in particular focus on Paris

French new wave cinema focuses on a group of french film makers, most commonly comprising of Jean-Luc Goddard, Francois Truffaut, Claude Chabrol and Jacques Rivette, most interestingly is that all of these film maker were film critic prior to being film makers and many also had a strong background in film theory

These film makers existed within the 1950’s and 1960’s and were influenced by Italian Neorealism and classic hollywood cinema

La Pointe Courte (1954) by Agnes Varda is seen as the start of the french new wave period, La Pointe Courte achieved cult status and went on to be the predecessor that inspired films by Jean-Luc Goddard, Francois Truffaut, Claude Chabrol five years later

New wave french cinema is seen as part of european art cinema, which despite being without a formal organization they had strong beliefs in the rejection of classical cinematic form, many of these films also engaged in with the social and political woes of the era.

Breathless (1960) was Goddard’s first feature length film which went on to become one of the most influential films of the new wave era, Goddard’s films became known for his cut of cutting and innovative use of jump cuts, similar to Hitchcock’s fame for the techniques he used, These techniques combined with Goddard’s strong visual style brought many eyes to the work and lead to it’s acclaimed status.

The french new wave has many defining characteristics, film makers turn from critics to auteurs, they are against the ‘cinema of quality’, the discovery of american genre films, cinematic values over literary values, the importance of personal expression and spontaneity and digression. Henri Langlois and the Paris Cinemateque

Henri Langlois was a pioneer of film preservation and became a french film archivist and cinephile. Langlois was a co-founder of the Cinematheque Francaise with Georges Franji and Jean Mitry. He later became the co-founder of the International Federation of Film Archives 1938. He also worked to preserve films and film history in the post-war era.

Andre Bazin and the realist tradition, Bazin thought that abstraction and artifice were to be kept to a minimum. The materials in reality should be able to speak to themselves. This links back to earlier lectures with Richard where we looked at truth to materials. Bazin believed that reality was the most important factor in cinema and that the director must reveal reality throughout. He believes that cinema lies between the sprawl of raw life, and the artificially re-created worlds of the traditional arts. Film makers can also preserve actual time and space by panning, tilting, and cracking rather than cutting into specific shots

Existentialism and term coined by Philosopher Jean Paul Sartre, denotes how film stressed the individual, experience of free choice, the absence of any rational understanding of the universe, sense of absurdity in human life, shot on location, used lightweight, hand held cameras, lightweight sound and lighting equipment, faster film stocks with less light, films shot quickly and cheaply, encouraged experimentation and improvisation, casual natural look created, available sound and light used, Mise-en-sence the french landscape and mobile camera improvised and innovative.

New wave came as result of the reaction against the french films of the 1940’s which were shot in studios, set in the past, the films were over dramatized, agianst the use of film trickery and special effects and against La tradition de qualite.

The new wave celebrated american film noir because if represented contemporary urban life, the characters in these films are in contemporary dress and speaking in the vernacular.

French new wave brought with it a particular style of editing which featured free style editing, the lack of conformity to editing rules, discontinuous style, use of jump cuts, insertion of extraneous material, the shooting of these films was on location, used natural light and improvised dialogue

New wave also resulted in a mood shift within films, heroes are seen as aimless, stylish and act silly, they are also cowardly and are amoral. Mood shifts that occur are infatuation, romanticism and boredom. Many films are about death and betrayal.

Other new wave films from 1959, François Truffaut - The 400 Blows, Alain Resnais - Hiroshima Mon Amour
From 1960, Jean-Luc Godard -Breathless, François Truffaut - Shoot the Piano Player

From 1961, Jacques Rivette - Paris nous appartient, Jean-Luc Godard - A Woman Is A Woman, Alain Resnais - Last Year At Marienbad

Blog, Marry, Avoid/ Wall of Designers



Blog, Marry, Avoid/ Second Date



I find the work of Effektive appealing as I have seen pieces of his work before while browsing but never put a name to the work, when Martin introduced me to his work and I learned more about this one man studio my love for his work grew. I've always had a passion for handmade work over digital work, I find it interesting and engaging that Effektive create hand made works but always produce a digital outcome which is then printed. His use of typography and stock is another element of his work I admire. 



Mark Weaver's is again work I have seen before but never knew the designer behind the work, he is one of a growing group of designers experimenting within modernists ideologies, I have always been a big fan of digital collage, but this designer is clean and simplistic with his style of collage as a-posed to the more common rough and ready style. 



I really began to like this the style of illustration the more I saw of her work, the line black thin and hints and tints of one colour across the illustrations, it's clean and simple yet still evokes a personal style from the illustrator. 

Blog, Marry, Avoid/ My Designers & Studios



Kate Prior
Discovered when and where/  2011, LCA BAGD
Who/  Young female british creative
What/  Illustrator 
When/  2006
Where / Leeds, UK / priooor@gamil.com / www.kateprior.com
How/  From collecting flyers and posters to designing them
Reasons why I like her/ Distinguishable, unique style / bright colour palette / abstract meaning within her work / her work is everything she has learnt up until this point / energetic mood surrounds her work / typography becomes part of the illustration 



Jullien Vallée
Discovered when and where/  2006, Personally
Who/  26, Canadian Male 
What/  Motion & Graphic designer  
When/  2006
Where / Montreal, Canada / Hello@jvallee.com / 819 598 2654
How/  Creating tangible images 
Reasons why I like him/ Gives material new meaning / He's a story teller / Dimensional / Uses paper as an escape from the digital world / Simplistic communication / Personal work that's understandable by others / Doesn't take his work to seriously / potential outcomes are always unexpected / vivid colour / can almost touch his work 



Serial Cut 
Discovered when and where/  2009, A Level
Who/  Ever evolving team of multidisciplinary designers 
What/  Art direction across a range of media 
Where/ Madrid, Spain / Info@serialcut.com / 0034677476044
When/  1999
How/  Collaborating to create new dimension 
Reasons why I like them / Collaborate to create something new that hasn't been done before / they don't limit their possibilities / use materials in new ways / craft their work / they think about digital in a real world way / scale of their work from small to large scale installations / combine media / call themselves 'image-makers' / fun yet focused / create an element of wonder with their work 

How To/ Taking Care Of A Guinea Pig

Bathing and GroomingSome guinea pigs like a bath, others hate it, but with boars it is necessary from time to time, as their grease gland near their bottom can become quite messy.

Use only a medicated animal shampoo (never use human or baby shampoo!) and use your bath or a plastic bowl, but nothing to high, as they will struggle and if they fall from the height of a sink, they can break bones or worse. Never leave them unattended.

The water should only be 1 – 1.5 inches deep and barely covering their tummies. Shampoo well but avoiding the eyes and ears and then rinse as thoroughly as you can, making sure all soap suds are gone.

Have two old towels at hand, one for mopping most of the water from their coat and another fresh dry one to sit cuddling him/her until they are completely dry.

Some guinea pigs will accept being dried by a hairdryer, but if they do, make sure it is on the coolest setting and never put a guinea pig back in its cage (indoors or out) before it is thoroughly dry.

Brushing is a must, especially for the longer haired variety, and just like dogs they do moult and they usually love this activity because it means they are receiving cuddles and attention.


Diet
Guinea pigs need fresh fruit and vegetables daily and at least twice a day, they are grazers naturally so are constantly eating.

They love routine and will generally let you know when feeding time is by “weeping” at you and in Guinness’ case,

running up and down at the front of the cage like a mad thing and then standing on his hind legs making eye contact with me.

My daily routine is as follows:-
Remove all uneaten food every morning and generally spring clean (remove piggie poo)

MorningFresh water and hay
Top up dried food (you will need a dried food with added calcium – this is a must)
I then prepare a bowl of freshly cut and washed carrot, cucumber and celery.

MiddayA handful of washed curly kale

Early EveningA large piece of apple (each) and a handful of greens

Bedtime (Guinness has learned this word, along with may others)A large selection of greens, my boys favourites are curly kale, spinach and cabbage.

Foods to AVOID AT ALL COSTSChocolate
Caffeine
Cheese, milk etc..
If it’s not plain water (tap or still mineral) do not give it to your guinea pig.
Lettuce (some lettuces, especially Iceberg can make them very ill)
Meat
Anything in the “hot” department, i.e. peppers, garlic or onions
Mushrooms
Fish
Bird seed or sunflower seeds and nuts

If you are in doubt, always ask your vet, this is very important, as some foods can cause serious harm.

CleaningApart from their daily spring clean, I completely clean my babies out twice a week

Wash all items, including toys, igloos, food bowls and water bottles in the hottest water you can bear as this will kill most germs.

If using an animal disinfectant, ALWAYS make sure that these are rinsed well before drying and reintroducing to their environment.

Give the bottom of the case a complete scrub and remove all wee and poo stains, if this is done properly there should be no residue left whatsoever. You would be surprised how many cages I have seen with large brown stains completely burned into the plastic. Yuck!

PlaytimeGuinea pigs like to run and “Popcorn” (jumping on the spot with a slight wiggle) so make as much time as you can for your guinea pigs to come out of their cage and run around. Make sure they are safe and block off areas which they can squeeze behind, especially where you have hidden wires as this can be very dangerous for them. They will chew anything and everything, so beware.

Health and General MaintenanceWhen brushing always feel along the whole of your guinea pig looking for little lumps or scabs, which if found should be inspected immediately by a good vet.

If your guinea pig is scratching more than usual, this could be an indication of mites and should be treated as soon as possible.

Always make sure their eyes are bright and clear and make sure their noses are clear from runny discharge as this would indicate a respiratory condition.

As my guinea pigs are indoor piggies, they need regular and routine visits to the vet to have their nails trimmed as they don’t have the opportunity to wear them down naturally.




Give your guinea pig a comfortable sized cage so they have room to roam around. At a very minimum, one guinea pig should have 7.5 square feet to live in. Two guinea pigs should have more than 10.5 square feet in one cage. Inside the home there should be objects where the guinea pig can hide in so they don't feel threatened. If the cage isn't 18 inches high, have a lid on top of the cage because you might find out that the guinea pig can jump out.

Keep the cage in an area where the temperature stays within 65 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. If the area is too hot, your guinea pig may suffer heat stroke.
Clean your guinea pig's cage once a week. This will help prevent diseases. Consider designating certain areas of your guinea pig's cage for certain activities, such as sleeping, eating and playing to help keep the area tidy.

Give your guinea pig commercial guinea pig food you can find at pet stores. Guinea pigs also love fresh fruit, hay and water. Throw away any fresh food that isn't eaten each day to keep your guinea pig from eating anything rotten. Let your guinea pig have a variety of food so it doesn't get bored.

Bathe your guinea pig and trim its nails weekly. Long-haired guinea pigs should also get their hair trimmed. It may take a few times for your guinea pig to get used to this sort of thing, but once it does it will gladly cooperate.
Let your guinea pig outside its cage to play for a few minutes every day. Just be very careful with children or other animals that are also lose. Pick up any electric wires and toxic plants. If you can, keep all dogs and cats in a separate room to avoid any kind of accident.

How To/ Pet Food Packaging + Other As Inspiration















Lecture 4: Film Theory - The Auteur

The Auteur is a film maker where the director characterizes the creative influence of the film, film makers considered famous auteurs are Hitchcock, Stanley and Kubrick

Auteur is french for author and the director was celebrated for there creative influence upon a film

Auteurs are seen as more than just film directors, they are akin to artists, they create original work, they possess creative control of the film, many auteurs have there own film language which is distinctive to them and their films, Auteurs are known for creating the conventions of genre rather than following them, they either break the rules or set new ones

Auteur Theory by Sarris 1962 - He spoke about the technical competence of film directors, the distinguishable personality within there films creating a ‘style’ which is recognizable to there films, as an audience you can instantly recognize an Auteurs film, he also spoke about auteurs use of interior meaning

The technical competence of the director - They have understanding of expressionist lighting to convey or create meaning and emotion, Story telling within the silent era of films, in which the story was told visually rather than through the spoken word, visual elements and composition craft story. The use of the subjective camera where by the audience see the story or film from the perspective of a character, Montage and clipping a craft pioneered by Hitchcock, where by clips or segments of different film are quickly cut together to create tension or other feeling within the audience

Hitchcock - 50 decade career within the film industry and is known for being a master of suspense, he ability to control and manipulate the audience's emotions and being a pioneer in the thriller/horror genre. He began in 1920’s using his skills as an artists to create film sets, he undertook an apprenticeship along side Graham Cutts at Gainsborough a prominent film school, shortly after he travelled to Germany to work along side film masters such as F.W. Murnau and german expressionists

Hitchcock created and master tensions within his film through the way he cut and montaged clips together, he said himself that the audience is aware of what is going to happen, but it is when it is going to happen that matters and therefore builds tension within the audience

F.W Murnau film Nosferatu, 1922 becomes an influence and guidance within Hitchcock owns films and Murnau use of shadow is later replicated in Hitchcock’s Vertigo

The Lodger, 1927 became Hitchcock’s first feature length film, the film featured heavy use of stage makeup to enhance the dramatic feel of the film, the movie poster for the film was influenced by cubism

Hitchcock makes use of the subjective camera within his film ‘Champagne’ 1928, in which Hitchcock shoots films through glasses and peep holes through doors, a seen of the film features couple kisses which the audience see through a glass, this creates an element of mystery and secrecy within the audience as well as dramatic irony.

‘Jamaica Inn’ again features Hitchcock shooting scene through a spy hole, this became a common element of Hitchcock films whereby the audience felt as if they were spying on characters within the film

The dolly zoom, created by Hitchcock, is an in camera special effect, which creates an unsettling feeling within the audience by undermining the normal visual perceptions of film, it also has many other names such as the ‘Hitchcock Zoom’ the technique was most famously used within the film ‘Vertigo’. The shot is used within high buildings or places to create a sick feeling or feeling of vertigo

Hitchcock famously said ‘What is drama, but life with the dull bits cut out?’ here Hitchcock is describing his technique of cutting and montage. Hitchcock likens the process of cutting to orchestration and the mix of loud and soft notes to create emotion as well as the size of the shot to evoke emotion, in particularly shock, Hitchcock was known for being a generous man, he shared is knowledge of the craft with other, he was also good a communicating his knowledge and experience to others

The director’s personality within a film - The directors use of expressionism and how the evoke emotion within the audience through use of form. Hitchcock was especially known for Cameo appearances within all his films. Hitchcock also famously used visual clues and props to tell the story with little dialogue some of his best scene features minimal dialogue. Hitchcock also continuously used the same actors which became snonomous with his films. Hitchcock also has an obscure obsession with blondes, many of great works feature blond protagonists - he once said ‘blond’s make the best victims They’re like virgin white snow that shows u the bloody footprints’. Overall Hitchcock is best known for the way in which is crafts suspense in his films.

Hitchcock creates his suspense when the audience is aware of a certain danger but the characters are not, Hitchcock said ‘there’s no terror in the bang of the gun only the anticipation of it’ suggesting Hitchcock believes timing is the key to creating good suspense. Most of Hitchcock’s early work created suspense and terror with little splatter on the screen.

Expressionism within Hitchcock’s films - as a director he was not concerned with realism or naturalism, Hitchcock’s ideal goal was to create and evoke emotion within his audiences, Hitchcock’s passion was to replicate the same ‘pleasure’ people have when waking up from a nightmare

Vertigo, a film by Alfred Hitchcock is seen as his masterpiece and perhaps for his use of voyeurism, in that nothing is ever what it seems, fear of heights, inability to save the girl and these experiences turing into nightmares are elements explored within ‘Vertigo’

Other features of ‘Vertigo’ include the protagonists decent into madness creating trauma within the audience. Furthermore there is a repetition of green throughout the film and green is symbolic of ever living and always green, similar to madeline and judy within the film being one ever living character. Colour is used by Hitchcock in an expressionistic way

Hitchcock is aware of the link between film making and art and hence creates a intwining narrative between colour and story telling, Hitchcock also use the silhouette to create tension and drama (similar to the silhouette in Nosfarto)

Hitchcock uses Interior meaning within his films which stems from his introduction to psycho analysis by David O Selznick, Hitchcock becomes fascinated with this ideology, He created the films, ‘Spellbound’ ‘Notorious’ and ‘Rebecca’ as a result of this new knowledge

Hitchcock also collaborated with artist Salvador Dali exploring how dreams can access the unconscious mind and also eyes - looking, viewing, perceptions but not always a pleasant viewing experience when you do look

Birds - Birds appear in many Hitchcock films, the are a motif of sabotage within his films they appear in ‘Jamaica Inn’, ‘The Lady Vanishes’ and ‘Psycho’ the use of bird also implies impending doom.

Hitchcock also self proclaimed his own fears of high places, small children, police men and that his next movie will not be as good as his last, these fears maybe present in his own films, fear of height seen within vertigo

There are a set of themes that Hitchcock continually visits within his films, ordinary people caught in extraordinary situations, mistaken identity, murder and madness, espionage, strong sexual themes and exploration of the darkest corners of the human mind

However the Auteur represents a series of films made by directors who were mostly male, as a portfolio of films was need to be given money to create a film a portfolio of which many women did not have.

It also disguises the work of others such as cinematographer, writer, sound and set design, it is also seen as a capitalist device by which films are sold by there director rather than the quality of the film which undermines the work of other directors.

In the future we must given birth to the reader at the death the Author, an analogy in reference to literature but can be translated to film in which the director must become transparent rather than the voice of the film.

Bad Breath in Dogs Survey


Using the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey, I created a personalised survey targeting owners of dogs and dogs who have suffered from Halitosis. I distributed the survey via online social networks and online dog and pet forums, the results are collated bellow. 

1. Has your dog ever suffered from bad breath (Halitosis)?
Yes 82%


No 27%


2. As the dog owner how concerned were you about the problem?
Not Concerned 36%

Slightly Concerned 9%

Quite Concerned 36%

Very Concerned 18%


3. Did you contact your local vet about the problem?
Yes 27%

No 81%


4. Was the bad breath caused by another disease?
Yes 54%

No 45%


5. If any, what action did you take to attempt to fix the problem?
Begin brushing your dogs teeth or brush them more frequently 18%

Feeding your dog treats that could improve breath odour 63%

Changing the type of food you feed your dog 18%

Visit the vet more regularly to check for underlying medical issues 18%

*[Primary] [Quantitive]

Dog and Cat Population UK

Dogs
In 2011, the UK dog population is around 8 million.

In 2008 this could be broken down into 75% pedigree, 11% Cross Breeds and 14% Mixed Breeds (There are 209 breeds of dog recognised by the Kennel Club)

Dogs by Breed (2008)
Numbers of dogs by breed/ million 2008

  • Labrador (0.6) 
  • Border Collie (0.6) 
  • Jack Russell Terrier (0.5) 
  • Yorkshire Terrier (0.4) 
  • German Shepard (0.3) 
  • Bischon Frise (0.2) 
  • Rottweiler/ Dalmation (0.1) 
  • Cocker Spaniel/ Shitzu (0.1) 
  • Labradoodle/ Golden Retriever (0.1) 
  • Geryhound (incorporating Whippets)/ Chihuahua (0.1) 


In 2008 the main source in which owners aquire their dogs are:
  • Rescue Centre: 32%
  • Friend/acquiantance: 25% 
  • Recommended Breeder: 16% 
  • Private Ad: 16% 
  • Internet: 8% 
  • Pet Shop: 7% 

Cats
In 2011 the UK Cat population is around 8 million

In 2008 92% of cats are moggies or 'non pedigree' (There are around 35-40 breeds of cat recognised by the Feline Advisory Bureau)

In 2008 the main reasons people keep cats as pets are for:

  • Companionship: 27% 
  • Love: 31% 
  • Easy maintainance: 7% 
  • Gets on with other species: 3%

Pet Owning Households
In the UK, almost 1 in 2 households own a pet
(46% = 12M), with around a total 22 million pets owned (excluding fish).

In 2011 the percentage of households owning a pet in the UK were broken down as follows;

  • Dog: 22% 
  • Cat: 18% 
  • Indoor Fish: 9% 
  • Outdoor Fish: 6% 
  • Rabbits: 2.7%
  • Indoor Birds: 2%
  • Guinea Pigs: 1.5%
  • Hamster: 1.4% Domestic Fowl: 0.6% 
  • Horses/Ponies: 0.2% 
  • Tortoises/turtles: 0.6% 
  • Gerbils: 0.1%
  • Snakes: 0.4%
  • Lizards: 0.6% 
  • Rats: 0.4%
* [Secondary] [Quantitive] PFMA

Ways In Which Halitosis Can Be Cured

Brush your dog’s teeth
Brushing their teeth regularly helps reduce bad odor coming out of your dog’s mouth. There are toothbrushes that are specially made for dogs that can be purchased from veterinary clinics or pet shops. A finger brush is a specially designed toothbrush for dogs that makes brushing their teeth much easier. A finger brush can reach areas in your dog’s mouth that are difficult to clean with a regular toothbrush.

Use dog toothpaste to brush their teeth
Toothpastes specially formulated for dogs are proven harmless when swallowed. They come in various flavor such as beef, chicken, and vanilla. Be careful not to use the same kind of toothpaste that you use when you brush their teeth. Some toothpastes used by humans can be harmful to dogs.

Buy dog mints and mouthwash
Mints and mouthwash are great alternatives for getting rid of bad dog breath. They are effective in preventing tartar buildup inside your pet’s mouth. They are sold in various flavors that your dog will love. Plaque sprays and chew toys also work against tartar buildup.

Watch your dog’s diet
Bad dog breath can result from eating unhealthy food. Your dog’s diet is not only important to its health but in preventing bad dog breath as well. Some dogs, if left unwatched, tend to eat non-edible stuff such as plants and soil. Ensure that your dog only eats dog food and drinks clean water. Dirty food contains bacteria that will live in the dog’s mouth, causing bad breath.

Ingesting unhealthy and dirty food will cause diseases with bad breath as a symptom. These diseases include gastrointestinal disease, mouth tumors, dog teeth gingivitis, or life-threatening kidney diseases.

Your dog’s health is your responsibility. So keep a close watch on what your dog eats. Clean your surroundings of dirty things that your dog can have close contact with. If your dog has a severe bad breath problem, you can go to your local vet for medicine that can get rid of the smell. If you can afford it, take your dog to the vet for regular dental cleaning.

Visit your vet more regularly

Visit your vet at least once or twice a year to check on your pet’s teeth before the build up becomes unmanageable. This should be done more frequently for older pets. Use regular heart worm blood test to seek your vet’s help to do a general check up on your dogs and seek advice if you should get their teeth cleaned.

Add Biotene to your dog's drinking water
Biotene is a water additive that has no color, no smell and no taste. Not only does Biotene help freshen your dog's breath but it helps remove plaque and inhibits the growth of odor causing bacteria. The suggested usage is 4 pumps per quart of water for the first two weeks. Thereafter reduce to 2 pumps per quart of water. The usage of Biotene is particularly beneficial for dogs that refuse to have their teeth brushed. It is safe for daily ingestion. This is veterinarian recommended and was prescribed by my vet.

Chew on raw bones
Allow your pet to chew on raw bones at least once a month to prevent tartar build up. Regular chew on raw bones will avoid dental visits at the vet. Do not feed your dog cooked or chicken bones as cooked, and chicken bones cooked may splinter when chewed and can cause potential damage to intestinal linings of your pet. If your pet has never eaten raw bones, monitor and ensure that they are able to handle it well and not swallow the bones whole which can cause choking which is dangerous. Most dogs naturally are able to handle raw bones well. To be safe, get the huge beef or mutton bone where they cannot chew it down but use it for exercising the jaw and cleaning their teeth.


[Secondary] Wiki How / Dog Bad Breath

Other Diseases Linked With Halitosis

Usually halitosis has oral causes, although sometimes it can be caused by other disease processes. These include:
  • Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums)
  • Periodontitis (inflammation of the tissue that surrounds the tooth)
  • Abscessed tooth or teeth
  • Bone or hair stuck in mouth
  • Oral ulceration
  • Foreign bodies in the mouth (such as plant material or grass awns)
  • Oral neoplasia (tumors of the mouth)
  • Lung diseases, such as lung cancer
  • Severe kidney disease

What to Watch For

  • Oral discharge
  • Oral pain
  • Bloody oral discharge
  • Drooling
  • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
  • Difficulty eating
  • Depression 
  • Diagnosis

Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of the bad breath and help guide subsequent treatment recommendations. Some tests may include:
  • A complete medical history and physical examination
  • A complete oral exam, which may require a brief anesthetic
  • Periodontal probing (a blunt probe that is used to check the gum/tooth interface) to identify gum and periodontal diseases
  • Full-mouth radiographs (X-rays) with a dental machine 

Treatment
Optimal therapy of any serious or persistent medical condition depends on establishing the correct diagnosis. There are numerous potential causes of halitosis and before any treatment can be recommended, it is important to identify the underlying cause. Initial therapy should be aimed at the underlying cause. This treatment may include:
  • Removal of foreign object if present
  • Treatment of any oral tumors as needed
  • Periodontal therapy and root planing (cleaning/scraping the teeth under the gums) 

Home Care
Home care recommendations will depend on the underlying cause of the problem. Some steps that you can take to help eliminate your dog's bad breath include:
  • Brushing your dog's teeth daily. Tooth brushes/finger brushes and special toothpastes are available from your veterinarian.
  • Spraying 0.12 percent chlorhexidine (prescribed by your veterinarian) into your dog's mouth once a day for seven to fourteen days.
  • Following dietary considerations recommended by your veterinarian. Special diets that may be beneficial include Hill's Prescription Diet T/D® or Eukanuba Restricted-Calorie Rewards®.
  • Evaluation by your veterinarian if the bad breath persists.


[Secondary] Pet Place

Overview of Bad Breath in Dogs and Cats

What Is Bad Breath?
We all know bad breath—also known as halitosis—when we smell it. Bad breath is the result of a build-up of odor-producing bacteria in your dog’s mouth, lungs or gut. Persistent bad breath can indicate that your dog needs better dental care or that something is wrong in his gastrointestinal tract, liver or kidneys. In all cases, halitosis is a red flag that should be investigated.

What Is Bad Breath Caused By?
Most often, canine bad breath is caused by dental or gum disease, and certain dogs—particularly small ones—are especially prone to plaque and tartar. However, persistent bad breath can also indicate larger medical problems in the mouth, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract or organs.

How Can I Determine The Cause of My Dog’s Bad Breath?
Your veterinarian is the best person to pinpoint the cause. A physical examination and laboratory work may be performed. Be ready to answer questions about your dog’s diet, oral hygiene, exercise habits and general behavior.

When Is It Time To See The Vet?
If your dog’s breath suddenly has an unusual smell, please consult your veterinarian. The following cases can signal to medical problems that need immediate treatment.
Unusually sweet or fruity breath could indicate diabetes, particularly if your dog has been drinking and urinating more frequently than usual.
Breath that smells like urine can be a sign of kidney disease.
An unusually foul odor accompanied by vomiting, lack of appetite, and yellow-tinged corneas and/or gums could signal a liver problem.

How Is Bad Breath Treated?
Treatment depends on your vet’s diagnosis. If plaque is the culprit, your dog might require a professional cleaning. If it’s an issue of diet, you might have to change your dog’s regular food. If the cause is gastrointestinal or an abnormality in your dog’s liver kidneys or lungs, please consult your vet about steps you should take.

How Can I Prevent My Dog From Having Bad Breath?


  • Many people assume that bad breath in dogs, especially at a certain age, is a “given”—but that’s not the case. In fact, being proactive about your pup’s oral health will not only make your life together more pleasant, it’s smart preventive medicine. 
  • Bring your dog in for regular checkups to make sure he has no underlying medical issues that may cause halitosis. 
  • Make sure your vet monitors and tracks the state of your dog’s teeth and breath. 
  • Feed your dog a high-quality, easy-to-digest food. 
  • Brush your dog’s teeth frequently—every day is ideal. (Please be sure to use toothpaste formulated for dogs as human toothpaste can upset a canine’s stomach.) 
  • Provide hard, safe chew toys that allow your dog’s teeth to be cleaned by the natural process of chewing 
  • Give your dog well–researched treats formulated to improve breath odor. 
  • Discuss home-use oral health products with your veterinarian to see if there’s a type he or she recommends

* [Secondary] ASPCA / WebMD

Initial Bibliography Using Harvard Referencing System

Benton, C. & Benton, T. (1975) 'Form and Function', London, Granada Publishing [745.5]
I have chosen this book although it primarily focuses on architecture elements of the book do explore the principle of 'form follows function' within design. I feel the book will offer deeper insight in the dramatically changing attitudes towards design during the period of modernism. 


Garratt, C. & Rodrigues, C. (2010) 'Modernism A Graphic Guide', United States of America, Totem Books [306.1]
This book provides an overview of modernism as a broad subject, although not in detail the boom summaries the events of modernism into a compact dialogue of the subject. This book will inform my overall understanding of modernism. 


Greenhalgh, P. (1990) 'Modernism in Design', London, Reaktion Books [745.2]
This book is a collection of essays and academic writing on the subject of modernism within design this book provides in depth detail and argument on the subject of modernism as well as offering varying analytical view points the debate of modernism. 


Remington, R.R. with Bodenstedt, L. (2003) 'American Modernism Graphic Design 1920 to 1960', London, Laurence King Publishing [741.604]
This book provides a more a visual reference to modernism with american during the period of modernity, throughout the book it explores the changes seen within design across a range of graphic media. 


Will, C. (2006) 'Modernism Designing a New World 1914-1939', London, V&A Publications [745.2]
Modernism designing a new world is a definitive collection of the changing world of design across a range of design practices from furniture to architecture. 

Illustrator Workshop/ Expanding Lines In Typography

Within this typeface it is interesting how the expanse the line/stroke is not seen within an individual letterform but across the typeface and the expanse is only seen when the typeface is used as a typeface. I will consider how my letterforms work individually and how they will be used as a typeface.

This typeface works by merging each letterform into each other with the continuation of one line, as area for experimentation within illustrator could be to explore how the letterform can expand into each other. 

The expanding lines within this type are confined to each letterform, different weighted strokes convey the expanse. Different stroke weights co uld be an area to explore as the weights get either thinner or thicker this conveys a sense of expanse. 

Here the concept of expanse has been explored both in 2D and in 3D, 2D lines expand across the surfaces of the typeface and the typeface expands to create 3D letterforms. Exploring how a typeface could become three dimensional is also something I could explore within Illustrator.

This typeface expands across the format in which it is presented, simples lines have been in differing directions to create the letterforms. Exploring how my typeface expands within the given format of A1 is an area to consider.

The Five Most Important Aesthetic Qualities

To determine my own set of five aesthetic qualities as groups we analysed our series of five images, from these images we discussed what element of these images we felt more aesthetically please us, then within different groups we were given a series of images another peer had collected and we had never seen before, using these images we were given 5 seconds, 15 seconds and 20 seconds to study to images, after each time allotment we noted down the word that best described our visual and aesthetic understanding of the image from this task it became evident that the longer you study an image the more your opinion of it is likely to change either for better or worse. After further discussion with the partner who's work I looked at we created a list of five aesthetic qualities I personally felt were most important in an image being aesthetically please to me

1) Inventiveness 
2) Wittiness 
3) Vivid
4) Deceptive
5) Playfulness

Five Aspirations That Will Change My Aesthetic Understanding Of The World

1) Learn a new language
2) See the northern lights 
3) Bath in a Hot Spring 
4) Multicultural Experiences - Visiting countries which have strong cultural differences to that of our own, such as Japan or Africa 
5) Zorbing 

Five Aesthetically Pleasing Images




Proverbially Yours 2/ Medical Graphic Design

This medical packaging demonstrates that medical packaging is simple, effective and information and lacks deceptions and mimics that of modernist feel. I should perhaps consider how simple I can make my mail shot as this is what my target audience will be used to interacting with. 

Here pastel blue colour schemes have been used combined with a contrasting dark more vivid colour, this is an effective way of making type and information stand out and still maintain a simple clinical and clean feel to the design, I should consider using these colours within my own work. 


Again pastel colours haves been used, this is appearing familiar within medical graphic design, it's not harsh on the eyes nor bright and intrusive. Type is well spaces and readable, it will be important to consider the positioning of type and ensure it's legible and readable and also minimal in content. 

More use of a blue colour scheme and also use a sans-serif type which makes the design appear simple and clinical, sans serif typefaces are also more legible and have a more professional and informative aesthetic appeal, which is the ideology I want to promote within my mail shot. 

I slightly different aesthetic design to the other work I had research, perhaps because of the differing target audiences however the blue colour scheme has remained prominent. Furthermore this also reaffirms the minimalistic approach to the amount of information and also silhouette style visuals to convey complex forms, simplifying the visuals within my mail shot will be crucial to it's success and ensuring the visuals are understood by the target audience. 

Use of a lowercase typeface can also be effective within medical graphic design as it is less abrupt and strong, it is calmer and more approachable to the audience, I will consider how I incorporate a lowercase typeface into my mail shot as it is most likely my target audience will interact with graphic design that makes use of using lower case rather than upper case. 

 

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