The Potential Of Critiques

5 Reasons why crits are useful educational tools:
1) They help you to become confident in the work you produce and presenting this work to a group of people 
2) They help you to understand how other's perceive your work 
3) They can encourage you to see how your work can move forward and allow you to take on board the ideas of others in improving your work 
4) They encourage you to step outside of your own thought process and gives you the oppurtunity to look at your work in different ways
5) Can often help you to realise how ideas might not work as you begin to talk about them and discuss them with others 

5 questions which could to asked within a group crit:
1)What is the symbolism or meaning behind the colour, type or image chosen?
2) What research influenced the work? 
3) What is the intended reaction to the work and how has the actual reaction differed? 
4) In what context is the work being used, presented or displayed? 
5) What is trying to be addressed and has it been successful?

Proverbially Yours 1/ Colour Schemes

I have researched and gathered a selection of colour schemes that could potentially be appropriate to my proverbially yours posters. I felt a series a oceanic colours such a pale blues and greens would be appropriate as they reflect the subject matter of the tongue twister within the posters, furthermore a dark blue contrasts well within a paler green or blue to create high impacts visuals. I also felt a series of shades of reds moving towards brown could also be relevant as they reflect they ocean in a more feminine way, however this would limit the target audience of the posters.

Proverbially Yours 1/ Image & Type Conveying Simple Message

Consider how existing imagery and pictorial associations can be used to enhance and better communicate my proverb, drawing in imagery that people already understand and associate with will benefit how high impact my poster can become. 

Simple colour scheme used to convey a simple, the colours help and enhance the message, choosing appropriate colours for my own posters will enhance the communication of the message. 

Composition within the posters will also be key to how high impact they well, ensuring the text in readable and well spaced for high impact and easy readability, furthermore considering where the text is place for the best communication of the message 

Considering how shape can be used to simply complicated imagery or words, shapes can often be manipulated to create a vague representation of the actual real world object or word but as a whole communicate with the audience much more successfully. 

Combing text with image can also be successful in communicating a message, as the work together to deliver the message. The technique also guides the audience around the poster and makes the audience concentrate on certain areas of the poster. 

Simple uses of shapes can be the most successful way to communicate a message and also to consider how the shapes can be used and manipulated together to add an alternate meaning, 

Varying sizes in typeface can also be effective to the poster being high impact at first glance to attract the attention of your audience and then further information can be gleamed from the poster from the smaller type. 

Communication the proverb by using both text and image to construct the phrase is an investing technique which I could explore using within my own work. 

The use of negative space can also be used to convey a secondary meaning to message or communicate further meaning that isn't always obvious when you first view the post. I consider using negative space to convey a secondary message along with my proverb. 

Part of practice makes perfect is about progression, repletion and becoming better over time using a conventional form of this concept such as the evolution of man could be used and altered/adjusted to fit with my proverb. 

Lecture 3: Graffiti & Street Art

Graffiti derived from the Italian word ‘Graphito’ which means images that have been scratched into a stone surface and often, natural pigments are also used to add colour

Early Graphito style work dates back to caves paintings, which were used by communities to tell stories of everyday life

These first acts of ‘graphito’ were not acts of rebellion like we associate with the term graffiti today

Graffiti has also be found in ancient Rome, during the destruction of the city of Pompeii, more vandal like graffiti has been found on the destroyed walls of the city, similar to anti political message seen in graffiti today

‘Kilroy’ was a caricature based pieced of graffiti that first appeared during WWII, it was not authored by any singular person and has been slightly modified by the individuals who have used it, the graffiti was used to create humour around a time of mass food shortage, the comic value is created by the place in which the graffiti appears rather than the actual caricature of Kilroy

Paris, May ’68 Riots – The largest general strike ever in history and mass rioting across France, lasted for two weeks and almost a near collapse of the current government at the time. DIY posters were created to advertise riots and Raleigh’s, the designs used symbolised the coming together of the common working man and making a stand – giving power back to the people

Urban Graffiti, 1970’s New York, developed along side the evolution of hip hop, the graffiti was mostly seen painted on rail carriages which allowed people’s voices and messages to spread and move across the city

Graffiti in New York was used to represent an unrepresented group of people who’s voices went unheard

Hip Hop was a direct contrast to the commercial Disco culture prevalent at the time

For the groups of people in New York who felt invisible, graffiti allowed them to say who they are and carry the message ‘i will not be ignored’

Jon Naar, a photographer a 1970’s graffiti art was sympathetic to this growing art form

Graffiti was used as a moving message across the city, a message from lower class being seen by higher class society

Jean Michael Basquiat, creator of SAMO - a cartoon like character created by him and his friends, the name is derived from the saying ‘Same Old Shit’

The statement being made by the character is one that conveys a sense of how life is confusing, the characters also had political connotations

The copyright logo/symbol also appeared next to the character which was used in an ironic manner to bridge the gap between graffiti and art which would be copyrighted

Form 1979 ‘SAMO is dead’ began to appear around areas of New York, Basquiat ended his own creation, moved towards creating artwork which graffiti influences

He became a figure of popular culture, he constantly appeared on media broadcasts, newspapers and magazines and was associated with the celebrities of the time, he was seen as the wild child of the New York art scene

Basquiat also collaborated with Andy Warhol on a selection of works, he later died of a heroin overdose

Keith Haring, Artist and social activist - known for his most famous work the ‘Radiant Baby’. His style uses thick black outlines with bright vivid colour, he also worked onto found objects and materials and places

He was renowned for travelling all over the world to create murals in the worlds most popular cities

Many believed his commercial success took away the social message from his work

He created ‘PopShop’ which sold t-shirts, toys and posters, this shop soon became a celebrity ‘hang out’, Haring became criticised for his commercial success and for his ability to use his work to make money, although Haring always defended his work with a social activist context

John Feckner, 1980’s - he created large text stencilling onto walls of buildings, his work ‘Broken Promises’ focuses on the waste and lack of housing within communities

Jenny Holzer, Neon and digital display artist - he work often tells us something we already know, but the location in which we see it makes us questions it’s truth, the meaning behind her work is not always immediately apparent

1990’s Graffiti - Graffiti began to be used in the commercial world this had a devaluing affect on graffiti as a form of art and expression

Graffiti also began to appear in video games such as ‘Jet Set Radio’, tagging in ‘Grand Theft Auto’ graffiti culture began appearing in these games

Invader, born 1969 - created a form of more permeant graffiti using mosaic tiles, his work was about the location in which it appear rather than the work it’s self

Pixel tiling mosaics began a popular style and spread over 22 countries worldwide

Banksy - ‘Kate Moss’ an example of street art appearing in a gallery, a completely different experience to viewing it in the street

Shepherd Fairy, creator of the famous ‘Obama Hope’ campaign image, this was an attempt by Obama’s campaign to relate and appeal to a younger audience and those involved in street culture

Street Artists around the world - Morro Da Providencia, pasted large images of women’s face across a favela landscape to highlight the idea of women being a unheard voice of the Favela

Blu + OS Gemeos - they incorporate elements of the building they work onto into there work, creating 3D street art, the building become part of the art

123 Klan - they used graffiti to produce a clothing line which in turn allowed them to fund and continue there graffiti practice

Paul Curtis - Reverse graffiti in which a stencil and water are used to wash away the grime from walls to create the street art, Curtis is creating an environmental message, and taking an environmental approach to the creation of his work (his work takes away the grime and dirt of industry) However this is no permanence to his work, it has a short life span in which it can be viewed

Alexande Farto - Sculptural approach to graffiti art, he chips away at the exterior plaster of buildings and walls to create image, creating 3D works

DIVA a female street artist from Brooklyn, creates a more feminine style within her work but her work also demonstrates how graffiti artists do not and are not always identified and therefore can become genderless

Fafi street artist of france, creates manga style over sexualised portraits

Graffiti then also began to be taken on by those who have been trained in art and design disciplines

Alphabet Soup 2/ Shyness & Distinctiveness in Typography

Within this typeface the stroke it's self is simple sans serif typeface however the decoration makes it appear three dimensional and contrasted. Using three dimensional visuals within my work my offer experimentation for showing the change in david's personality, perhaps visually from 2D to 3D.

The extensions that develop from some of the anatomy of the letterforms is similar to how I want to visualise the growth and change in david's personaility.

Within this typeface there is clear, almost completely opposite contrast between the pin thin weight of the two juxtaposed with the extremely heavily stroke. This stark contrast is something I could develop within my own work to show the change in david's character.

The thick stroke combined with the thin bowls within this typeface again present a contrast, it is interesting that although the bowls are extremely thin the typeface is still very legible, ensuring my typeface is still legible when exploring the use of thick and thin stroke weight will be essential to the success of my typeface.

Rather than the thick and thinner line weight within the typeface be completely separate here they have been merged and blended to create a continuation it will be important to consider how I can create a contrast within my typeface yet still have continuity across the letterforms. 

Almost using a typeface within a typeface is an idea I could consider within my own work in visualising the difference in david personality, within this typeface it looks like two completely different typefaces have been merged together, this is an idea I could explore. 

I like that within this letterform a continuous line has been, almost creating a path, a journey similar to the concepts I want to convey in the typeface I create.

The weight decoration here I also something I could consider, rather than focusing on the purely the weight of the stroke within the letterform, I could like how filled lines and striped lines could be used to create a contrast or change. 

Lecture 2: Post Modernism

Post Modernism is seen as response to Modernism, it is much less serious, with a mix of low and high, mixes some seriousness with jokiness

Modernism in which form follows function and was standardized and unified was blindly followed by all designers, but problems began to arise with modernist ideas

Modernism is associated with the experimental, innovation, individualism, progressiveness, purity, originality and seriousness
A failing of Modernism is that individuals were leading the world forwards

Post modernism is the direct opposite of these ideas, post modernism questions, what is the point of experimenting? nothing is new, why be individual? when teams can work better together, Innovation? we can’t save the world so why try, Purity? post modernism blends styles and influences together and seriousness is contrasted by element of humor found in post modern work

A Post Modern condition - Exhaustion, Pluralism, the mixing of sources and pessimism, the new has not saved the world

Disillusionment with absolute knowledge occurred

Modernism was an expression of technology and communication where as post modernism is a reaction to the conditions of modernism which are sometimes negative

Modernism is said to have ended in 1960’s although not all agree, some argue modernism is still happening

‘Homage to New York’ was a large machine made from pieces of junk and scrap machines, it moved and made noise with the ultimate aims of blowing up, this piece was created to symbol the fact there is no more art, the machine was created to demonstrate a view against art and that technology is flawed, a machine is made but to ultimately break, technology is not saving us, this is also an example of a negative piece of work towards progressiveness an ethos of Modernism

Origins of Post Modernism - 1917 ‘Nihilistic, amoral post modern men’, 1964 New culture against high culture of modern art
Timeline of post modernism - 60’s the beginning, 70’s established term, 80’s recognizable style, 90’s dominant theoretical discourse, today tired and simmering

Uses of post modernism - the era following modernism, contra (attack against modernism), equivalent to capitalism, artistic and stylistic eclecticism (post modern as a term to describe a particular style of art)

Some question how we can live in a time after modernism?

Global village phenomenon, global race, no individuals

Charles Jencks said post modernism began on 15th July 1972 3.32pm, in which the demolition of a modernist social housing block - an example of design to save the world failing

Modernist social housing became like slums, they were filled with the underclass, the boring aesthetic led to vandalism and the demolition of this type of building symbolises the start of post modernism

Flaws of Modernism - reduces the human, architecture controls humans and life, one style of architecture for the whole world

Post modernism - questions convention and aims of modernism and how in modernism the work became more important than the people

Question why follow the rule of ‘form follows function’

Architects were the first people to begin to discuss and consider post modernism

The only rule post modernism has is that there are no rules

Parkhill Flats, Sheffield - Innovative and popular at the time of development, but now looks grim and is hated by locals and residents, a soulless and awful place to live. In the 20th century everyone acknowledged that is was bad, people living in ti wanted it demolished, however the government gave the building a listed status as it was an important piece of historical architecture. ‘Urban Splash’ was an initiative to redevelop and improve Parkhill Flats

Modernism ignored human needs, design principles came before human needs

Humanization of Modernism - Add colour and soul to buildings, the city should be a element of play

Guggenheim Museum - Truth to materials in it’s construction but also is covered in Zinc creating a lie

James Stirling - Created buildings which looked like they were falling apart when it was new

Post modernism is an exploration into doing things the opposite way to modernism

Quintan Terry - His reacted to modernism in a much more conservative way

Meta-narrative - Totaling belief system

Modernism as a meta-narrative which resulted in a crisis in confidence

High and low art divide begins to crumble

Paris > New York > Las Vegas, became the post modernist city, a freedom to let styles clash with each other, was seen as a liberation

Postmodernism is a dystopia, the opposite to utopia

Andy Warhol - Didn’t attempt to create a portrait of Marylyn Monroe, it was not art, it was a meditation in how society created influence and the flaws in technology

Jackson Pollock - Truth to materials and trying to do something new

Andy Warhol, Oxidation painting - Urine used to rust copper painting onto a canvas direct attack on the work of Jackson Pollock

‘Artist’s Shit’ the artist canned his own feces, signed the can like an artist and sold the work for a very expensive price, the artist is suggesting that art is ‘shit’ there is no possible way to have a good experience from this piece of work.

Advertising now seen as the greatest form of art in the 20th century

Mix of high brow with the popular, post modern art became more accessible as it sampled elements from different styles and eras

Postmodernism - a vague and disputed term, critical and questioning of modernism, multiplicity of styles and approaches, shift in thought and theory investigation and allowed space for new voices

Lecture 1: Modernity & Modernism

John Ruskin (1819-1900) - Critic who discussed whether or not contemporary life was as good as traditional lifestyles.

20th Century definition of modern is not just something that is up to date but something that is better, improved and made increasingly made better - Modern is an improvement on what has came before

Improved Art - More radical style and aesthetic, progression is in art for the first time

Fashion would not exist without progression, consumers rely on the constant progression fashion - changing styles, reinvention of the old to make new  

Paris 1900 - The City of modernity at the time, most radical and modernist city in existence in the early 20th century

Urban modern life - radically different said to have ended in the sixties - but some question how can modernism have ended, if we currently live in a modern society?

Late 1700’s when the world began modernizing, because of industrialization and urbanization. Rural farming industry - traditional industry relied on the weather and controlled by the times of the day, factories in modern cities could run for 24 hours a day and people began controlled, shifted work patterns of life.

Urbanization - Density of population growing within inner cities, urbanizing involves the living of many people in a small area but nobody knows each other unlike small rural communities that came before

Living Within a modern city, life began to speed up, the invention of train led to the whole country being accessible within hours rather than days via horse back. The invention of the telephone also led to people becoming more interconnected over long distances. New leisure forms such as the cinema also became popular

These new inventions did not come without there drawbacks, the invention of new technology began to changes people’s relationships with society.

Major cities within the world fought to become the most modernist city, London held the ‘Great Exhibition’ in 1851, which failed to impress the world as much as Paris’s event 4 years later in 1855 in which the Eiffel tower was unveiled. Rivalry began to increase between nations, there was a race to develop the best new technology.

Enlightenment - The world turns to modern forms of knowledge, the world now uses science and philosophy to understand the world rather than religion

The city becomes a social hub

Modernity in the modern city - The Eiffel tower rises above traditional buildings, its construction, design, materials and scale also exemplify paris as a modern city

The increasing pace in which the city and life changed was not welcomed by everyone, people began to become dazed and dizzied by the change

Travel and railways across continents meant a standardized world time was introduced - the world became a sync

As population in cities began to increase feelings of loneliness and isolation began to occur amongst members of society

Fashion becomes a key part of society and in defining who you are as an individual amongst the many of whom live within the city - Fashion used to signify who you are and distinguish yourself.

Haussmannization - The narrow streets of Paris and other cities were knocked down and replaced with large boulevards, the centre of Paris went from being an area of highly concentrated poor people to an area of affluence, poor people were pushed to edges of the city. Boulevards meant for more controlling city, the city centre became an upper class zone.

Within art, Artists turned to the city for inspiration within their work rather than popular figures and landscapes. The city became a relevant and valid subject for artists work. Within the paintings the city became more important than the people inside the painting.

People lived close to their neighbors, but never really knew who they were.

A growth in the study of Psychology also became prominent with a desire to understand how the human mind worked, with a main goal of understanding how the city would affect people mentally.

The Modern Family - families remained physically close but became psychologically disconnected

As technology advanced so did the work of artists, the discoveries
 within science began to influence the techniques used by artists 

A Shift took place between work and free time, life became more controlled with the introduction of shift work, life was more regimented, controlled, organised and repetitive

Class division between higher and lower class also became more prominent, poorer members of society began to drink alcohol to ‘drown sorrows’ because of the horrors of modern life

The invention of photography also impacted the work of artists, the ‘cropped’ style of photography began to be seen in art in which the subject of the artwork did not completely fill the frame

Kaiser Panorma (1883) - An optical viewing device in which people communally viewed photographs, a shift in social behavior can be seen with this practice, in that people are willing to pay to see static photographs rather than travel to see the actual place.

Technology now became a barrier between our experience with the real world, our understanding of the world became an individual experience rather than a communal experience.

Much of society disliked the modern world, only a few celebrated the changes modern life brought with it

Max Nordan, Degeneration (1892) Talked about individual experiences that were isolated and not shared.

Today we take technologically advancements for granted, but at the time of modernism these changes were radical

With the invention of Photography, art and artist had to respond as photography made painting obsolete, artists began investigations into new techniques and abandoned realism for expression.

The city gave new perspectives to the world, not previously possible, such as looking down onto the world from a tall building

The world became infinitely more understandable and advancements in science helped us to further understand the things within our world

Shift in visual culture, Picaso didn’t paint his subjects realistically he painted them abstractly at different angles, Picaso painted in a way that symbolises how one might experience and interact with the body at angles

Modern art was mainly influenced by the modern changes being seen in the world at the time, this change is reflected within design as well

Design became an anti-historicism process - which didn’t look back, only looked forward to what could be better and to invent only new styles of working

Truth to materials - An ideology in which designers focused on where materials ‘speak for themselves’ they are not painted or decorated, the materials are not disguised

Form follows functions became a new principle in design, in which the aesthetic design is secondary to how it works and functions, simple functioning form creating beauty

Can also be seen in Graphic Design, the function of communicating comes first no unnecessary decoration needed

This design principle always embraced new technology, and works were created in response to it

This principle also created an international language for all

Bauhaus cutlery - an example of modernist design in which functions comes before aesthetic decoration

Adolf Loos (1908) wrote ‘Ornament is crime’ which discussed how buildings should not be decorated to make them ‘trend’, trends go out of date, following trends is not a progressive practice, he believed in creating an ‘eternal style’

If materials are allowed to be themselves, design will never date

The Bauhaus, Modern design school in germany - Radical approach to teaching, it’s teaching focus was interdisciplinary

The Bauhaus building is modernist - made from concrete and has large windows to let light in for painting

Internationalism - A language of design that could be recognized by all on an international basis

Harry Beck as an example or internationalism, creator of the london underground map - now copied by every country in the world

Modernist ideology seen in the developments of fonts and typefaces - serif’s were seen as an unnecessary part of a typeface, therefore removed to create sans serif typefaces

Contrasted by Stanley Morrison who created ‘Times New Roman’ during the same period, a serif typeface which is not internationalist

‘Fraktur’ another typeface design which was created to reference german historical culture was also none internationalist

Technology also lead to creation and use of new materials such as plastics, aluminum and concrete

The process of mass production also became common which allowed products to be made on a large scale, for cheaper which made certain products more readily available

As the products were made quickly and cheaply this meant more people could afford to buy them, also promoting a cultural theory that everyone can have the same (Communist society)

Critical Studies Image Analysis

Compare and contrast the images ‘The Uncle Sam Range’ by Schumacher & Ettlinger and A wartime poster by Savile Lumley

The Uncle Sam Range advertisement was produced by Schumacher & Ettlinger in 1876, the image was created to patriotically advertise and propagate the sale of The Uncle Same Range to American consumers. Whereas the wartime poster produced by Savile Lumley in 1915 was used to influence middle to higher class society to enroll in military forces during World War One. 
The Uncle Same Range advertisement heavily relies on patriotic cultural stereotypes throughout its design to convey it’s message. The red, white and blue colour scheme taken from the American flag is a conscious design decision taken to appeal the pride in American society, together the colours symbolise the American way of and by using these colours members of society immediately relate to the image. Furthermore a classic, bold American serif font has been used in gold colour to appeal to upper class society - gold symbolises and promotes wealth. Similarly Lumley’s wartime poster also uses patriotism however is makes more subtle references to it within the poster illustration. Lumley makes reference to nationalistic symbols such as the English rose featured on the curtains in the illustration in a less evasive manner. Alike The Uncle Sam Range advertisement the word ‘YOU’ in Lumley’s poster is capitalised and underlined to make the word stand out and address the audience directly. However the poster is also takes a more informal tone with use of handwritten font and the message being delivered in not a direct command like many enrollment poster’s of this era, the message questions the audience indirectly. 
Both posters use visual references to convey or symbolises certain messages. The Uncle Sam Range advertisement features a clock with two dates on, with symbolises the 100 years of progress American has made since signing the declaration of independence, this theme of American independence is also mirrored through Uncle Same being a symbol of independence as well as the eagle on his shoulder suggesting pride and power of American society. These messages relate to middle and higher class Americans to whom this cooker is targeted. In the same way the Schumacher & Ettlinger using visual imagery to convey American patriotism, Lumley uses visual imagery to emotionally manipulate it’s target audience. The child playing with the army figures suggests his aspirations to join the army this image combined with the look of disappointment and sadness on his daughters face makes the audience feel guilt, towards himself and his family for not enrolling in the army. Lumley’s poster projects a future in which the war has been and life has returned to normal and as a result of winning the war life could potentially be better. Similarly to how The Uncle Sam Range advertisement could also appeal to lower class society wanting to aspire to own the cooker and lead the life depicted in the advertisement. 
The male is the focal point of The Uncle Same Range advertisement suggesting the cooker is aimed at a male audience and a father figure wanting to provide for his family. Similarly to how Lumley’s poster target wealthy men with families, who have no need to join the war unlike poorer families who have noting to lose. The Lumley poster conveys a message that in joining the army you will be part of a ‘great’ war, that the country wins and is better because of the war and through partaking in the war you make you family and country proud. At a time when conscription wasn’t present in society this poster aims to attract a wealthier male to enroll in the army. The poster would have also been published at a time of uncertainty, but this poster aims to project a better future post-war. 

Graphic Design I Love and Hate

Julien Vallee / Graphic & Motion Graphic Designer / Love
Paper, paper, paper, one image. Tangible design and design that attempts to bridge the gap between digital versus handmade design or questions the boundaries between the two, is an area of design I am extremely passionate about. Jullien Vallee a designer I have followed for many years I feel has innovated in this space, and continues to do and now many other designers mimic his style of work. Most of Vallee's work is crafted by hand using paper based media, however as the core of his process is his manipulation of type and image as three dimensional objects. His work also uses a range of bolds colours, something I am not usually visually attracted to, however Vallee uses colour in such a way the varying palette becomes unified and not visually chaotic. If I was to idealise the work of any other designer - it would be Vallee's work.

Lacoste Legends / POGO / Love
Simple meets complex. My love of tangible design is contrasted with a love for Editorial design that is heavily typographic and layout driven. This campaign created by Pogo design studio is a particular favourite, and for many reasons. Initially the restricted colour palette of green and black is what first drew me to the work, but other design elements such as the condensed typography, the mix of hand rendered imagery interspersed with photography

The People's Supermarket / Unreal / Love
Good package design makes me happy. Packaging design has been a focus of mine in studies prior to this course, this brand identity and packaging created for 'The People's Supermarket' experiment in london is wonderfully simple yet versatile. The design is clear and bold and defiantly breaks the mould for supermarket products with it's uses of bright yellow and contrasting black. It has subtle elements of vintage packaging, yet manages to stay current and doesn't explicitly follow today's packaging trends. 

Division of Industrial Design / SILNT / Love
Ultimate minimalism, ultimate perfection. Minimalism is design that i've always appreciated, yet I haven't really experimented with myself. Design that is minimal is clean, simple and is not distractive it serves it purpose and it does so effectively. I'm fascinated by how minimalism implies less of something, yet the possibilities with minimalistic design are endless. My love for this form of design as well as more tangible design conflict inside me, but I will always equally appreciate both. 

Nicolas Girard / Graphic & Typographic Designer / Hate
Typographic design with a fake, plastic visual aesthetic I think is outdated and uninteresting, I don't think it represent today's visual culture, especially within this country. Design such as this looks forced and over photoshoped. The design lacks both focus and context and serves no purpose, in no way is this an effective piece of graphic design. 


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